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The country continues to face challenges from terrorism, political unrest, and economic underdevelopment.With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fifteenth-most populous in the world.Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government.Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest.The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval for about 150 years.Stronger Nile floods and stabilisation of government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country in the Middle Kingdom c.Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European.
Egypt emerged as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC.
There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases.
In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 19, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1980, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel.
During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt.